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IRONWORK REPAIRS IN TIMBER-FRAMED BUILDINGS.
5. Types of Iron Ties.
Traditionally, these are long slender rods with the tips bent at slightly
under right-angles and are used as hold-fasts during timber conversion. Their
use has been extended to reinforce timber joints by driving them permanently
in across the stress path to prevent pulling out. Later the smith adopted
the principle in the design of the tie by hammering the ends to a point and
turning them in to help with the location of the tie before the nails were
driven in (Fig. 5.15 - 5.16).
A strap cramped at either end. The cramp has been drawn down, presumably to
increase its length and appears to be made of a reused cart tire. This would
date it to the 18th century or earlier. The other fixings may provide a closer
A broken cramp that has been replaced with a stapled L-tie. The uniformity
of its form and fixings indicates a 19th century date for the L-tie. The cramp
must therefore be earlier.
Iron ties in the form of brackets are seldom used probably because of the
intrinsic weakness of the form. However they are used to secure inserted door
posts and the like (Fig.5.17). They are popular in mill buildings where vibration
needs to be damped to prevent the joints pulling out (Fig 5.18). L-ties can
be turned inside out to form brackets where other repairs may be impractical.
A 20th century mild steel strip bracket originally used to secure a failing
door post. The machine drilled and countersunk holes as well as its milled
uniform section make it simple to identify.
A nailed in internal bracket on a main tie beam in Lode Mill, Cambridgeshire.
The large square headed nut ensures the bracket cannot be torn out. Dated
to the mid 1800's.
A tie in the form of the letter U (Fig 5.19). Distinct from a stirrup in that
the terminals only accommodate nails or staples and no mortice is required
for fitting. Used to bind posts to wall ties.
A U-strap on an arcade post of the Wheat Barn at Cressing Temple. Of uniform
section with drilled and countersunk holes and nailed in with round clouts
this repair must date to the end of the 19th century or later. It has been
repositioned at least once.
5.10 Forelock Bolts, 5.11 T-pins.